1. Biodegradable Metal Materials Biodegradable metal medical materials refers to metal implants in the process of assisting and completing the repair of biological tissue, gradually corrosion in the organism until the complete dissolution of a class of metal materials, while the material corrosion products to organisms will not produce or produce a slight host reaction.
Therefore, the main components of biodegradable metal materials should be the body can be excreted through the metabolism of the basic metal elements, and in the organism has a certain corrosion rate.
Biodegradable metal materials mainly include pure magnesium and magnesium-based alloys, pure iron and iron-based alloys, pure zinc and zinc-based alloys, tungsten and (calcium-based, zinc-based and strontium-based) bulk amorphous alloys.
2. Biodegradable nonpolar non-metallic materials Biological ceramics in the physiological environment of the structure or material decay, the product is absorbed by the body or through the circulatory system out of the body, known as the biodegradation of ceramics. When biodegradable or bio-absorbable ceramic materials are implanted into the bone tissue, the material is dissolved by body fluids or excreted by the metabolic system, eventually making the site of the defect completely replaced by the newborn bone tissue, while the implanted biodegradable material only acts as a temporary scaffold.
Part of the body is excreted through a series of biochemical reactions, partly in the formation of new bone. Currently widely used and studied biodegradable and absorbing bio-ceramics mainly refers to calcium phosphate bio-ceramic material, which includes three calcium phosphate, calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite and their mixtures, such as calcium phosphate ceramic materials implanted in the body after a period of time, can be partially or wholly absorbed, ceramic biodegradation,
The biodegradation of which is significantly β-phosphate (β) ceramic, which has good biodegradability, biocompatibility and no biological toxicity, when it is implanted into the human body, the degraded Ca, P can enter the living circulatory system to form new bone.
3. Biodegradable polymeric Materials Biodegradable absorption of bio-polymer materials in the body for a period of time can be fully functional, after a period of time began to degrade and lose the original function, its degradation products by metabolism is absorbed or discharged outside the body. Because biodegradable polymer materials can not be removed without reoperation, there is a wide range of application prospects in the treatment of temporary implantation.
Mainly used in surgical suture, surgical isolation materials, artificial skin, artificial blood vessels, bone fixation and repair, tissue engineering carrier and drug control release and other fields.
Biodegradable polymer materials can be divided into two types: natural and synthetic according to their sources.
Natural material refers to natural materials such as cellulose, chitin, starch, lignin, alginate, etc., which originate from animals and plants or human body, natural protein materials such as collagen and fibrinogen. Synthetic biodegradable polymers can degrade and absorb bio-polymer materials by controlling the process conditions, repeatability, mass production, and through simple physical and chemical modification can obtain a wide range of properties to meet different needs, so the synthesis of biodegradable absorption of bio-polymer materials is more widely used.
Mainly poly-alpha-hydroxy acid, poly anhydride, poly-α-amino acid and aliphatic polyester.
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